By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Toxicology, Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels
This publication is the 7th quantity within the sequence "Acute publicity instruction degrees for chosen Airborne Chemicals", and contains AEGLs for acetone cyanohydrin, carbon disulfide, monochloroacetic acid, and phenol. on the request of the dep. of protection, the nationwide study Council has reviewed the suitable medical literature compiled through knowledgeable panel and verified Acute publicity instruction degrees (AEGLs) for 12 new chemical compounds. AEGLs symbolize publicity degrees less than which hostile well-being results aren't more likely to ensue and are invaluable in responding to emergencies comparable to unintentional or intentional chemical releases in the neighborhood, the office, transportation, the army, and for the remediation of infected websites. 3 AEGLs are licensed for every chemical, representing publicity degrees that lead to: outstanding yet reversible ache; long-lasting health and wellbeing results; and, life-threatening wellbeing and fitness affects.
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Extra info for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 7
The authors also studied the acute toxicity in mice for a series of seven aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, propionitrile, acrylonitrile, nbutyronitrile, malononitrile, succinonitrile, and acetone cyanohydrin) and sodium cyanide. Only the latter two compounds produced death within 5 min. All other nitriles produced death at widely varying intervals from a few minutes to many hours. Pretreatment with the liver toxicant carbon tetrachloride protected mice against death from all nitriles, except acetone cyanohydrin, suggesting that all nitriles examined (except for acetone cyanohydrin) possess little if any acute toxicity in the absence of normal hepatic function and that these nitriles (except acetone cyanohydrin) underwent hepatic metabolism to release cyanide, accounting for their acute toxicity.
Nonlethal Toxicity No relevant studies documenting nonlethal effects in humans after a single inhalation exposure to acetone cyanohydrin were located in the available literature. Cases of intoxication in workers after dermal contact with acetone cyanohydrin have been reported (Lang and Stintzy 1960; Zeller et al. 1969). Sunderman and Kincaid (1953) described at least three pumpers who lost consciousness during the packing operation of acetone cyanohydrin. The men recovered after they had been revived on exposure to fresh air and cleaning their hands.
And synthetic resins, as well as in the manufacture of insecticides, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and perfumes. Acetone cyanohydrin decomposes spontaneously in the presence of water to acetone and HCN. Fatalities and life-threatening occupational intoxication have been described after accidental inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion. Initial symptoms after mild exposure to acetone cyanohydrin range from cardiac palpitation, headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting to nose, eye, throat, and skin irritation.