Download Advanced Organic Chemistry by Valerie Coulter PDF

By Valerie Coulter

ISBN-10: 938016887X

ISBN-13: 9789380168876

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It is formed when atomic orbitals overlap to produce a molecular orbital. For example, the formation of a hydrogen molecule (H2) from two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom has a half-filled 1s atomic orbital and when the atoms approach each other, the atomic orbitals interact to produce two MOs (the number of resulting MOs must equal the number of original atomic orbitals): The Organisation 37 Fig. Molecular orbitals for hydrogen (H2). The MOs are of different energies. One is more stable than the combining atomic orbitals and is known as the bonding MO.

Bonding in ethyne. Nitrile Groups To explain the bonding within a nitrile group (C  N) where both the carbon and the nitrogen are sp hybridised. The energy level diagram in figure given below shows how the valence electrons of nitrogen are arranged after sp hybridisation. A lone pair of electrons occupies one of the sp orbitals, but the other sp orbital can be used for a strong σ bond. Fig. sp Hybridisation of nitrogen. Fig. π-Bonding in HCN. 50 Organic Chemistry The 2py and 2pz orbitals can be used for two σ bonds.

There are three important ways in which the mixing process can occurs are: • The 2s orbital is mixed with all three 2p orbitals. This is called sp3 hybridisation. • The 2s orbital is mixed with two of the 2p orbitals. This is called sp2 hybridisation. 38 Organic Chemistry • The 2s orbital is mixed with one of the 2p orbitals. This is called as sp hybridisation. The other types of hybridisation observed in some other compounds are: (i) dsp2: In it one (n – 1)d orbital and one ns orbital and 2 np orbitals combine to form 4 hybridised orbitals.

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