By S C Bhatia
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Violent clash in sub-Saharan Africa has been accountable for the direct and oblique deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and has contributed considerably to the low degrees of human safeguard within the area. The nations of sub-Saharan Africa which have been embroiled in violent clash are characterized via abject poverty, insufficient provider provision, political instability, retarded monetary development and different demanding situations to total improvement that deter the enhancement of human defense.
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Extra resources for Advanced renewable energy sources. Part - I
The earth’s axial tilt changes gradually over thousands of years, but its current value is about ε = 23°26′. Because this axial tilt is nearly constant, solar declination (dO·) varies with the seasons and its period is one year. 3 Azimuth An azimuth is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth (Fig.
Hydroelectricity can only be used in areas where there is a sufficient and continuing supply of water. 3. Flooding submerges large forests (if they have not been harvested). The resulting anaerobic decomposition of the carboniferous materials releases methane, a greenhouse gas. 4. Dams can contain huge amounts of water. g. flooding. 5. Dams create large lakes that may have adverse effects on earth tectonic system causing intense earthquakes. 6. Hydroelectric plants rarely can be erected near load centers, requiring long transmission lines.
The barrage construction can affect the transportation system in water. Boats may not be able to cross the barrage, and commercial ships, used for transport or fishery, need to find alternative routes or costly systems to go through the barrage. 3. The erection of a barrage may affect the aquatic ecosystems surrounding it. The environment affected by the dam is very wide, altering areas numerous miles upstream and downstream. For example, many birds rely on low tides to unearth mud flats, which are used as feeding areas.