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By Alan R. Katritzky

Validated in 1960, Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry is the definitive serial within the area-one of serious value to natural chemists, polymer chemists, and such a lot organic scientists. each 5th quantity ofAdvances in Heterocyclic Chemistry encompasses a cumulative topic index.

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The photons with energy less than the band gap energy of the semiconductor are not absorbed. Therefore, the band gap of the semiconductor places a limit to the PCE of the solar cell. The absorbed photons excite electrons from the ground state (valance band) to the excited state (conduction band) of the semiconductor giving photogenerated electrons in the conduction band and corresponding holes in valance band. Irrespective of the binding energy of 33 Solar Cells and Their Generations Current photoexcited electrons and holes, the photon absorption generates an electron–hole pair, which should be separated and transported in the opposite direction to constitute an electric current.

Diffusion comes from the concentration gradients of the charge carriers, whereas drift comes from the internal electric field of the device. The collection of charge carriers at respective electrodes develops a potential difference between them. If a load is connected across the two electrodes, an electric current would pass through it. Not all photogenerated charge carriers reach the electrodes, as some of them get recombined. Recombination of charge carriers reduces the cell efficiency. There are lots of loss mechanisms and limiting factors in a cell that control its efficiency.

To calculate the PCE, it is important to know the maximum electric power given to the load, and for this purpose current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the cell are measured under illumination. To measure the I–V characteristics a source-measure unit is used as an alternate of the load, where a range of voltage from negative to positive values is applied and the corresponding current through the cell is measured and recorded. 22. The Isc and Voc are directly measured from the I–V characteristics as the current at zero voltage and voltage at zero current, respectively.

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