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The transfer of responsibility takes place at the moment the aircraft starts moving under its own power. 2 Necessity Icing conditions on the ground can be expected when air temperatures approach or fall below freezing and visible moisture is present in the form of either precipitation or condensation. Aircraft related circumstances could also result in ice accretion when humid air at temperatures above freezing comes in contact with cold structure. 3 Clean Aircraft Concept Any contamination of aircraft surfaces can lead to handling and control difficulties, performance losses and/or mechanical damage.

When ground temperatures at the destination are low it is possible that flaps retraction will result in undetected accumulations of ice between stationary and moveable surfaces. These areas must be checked before departure. In freezing fog conditions the rear side of the fan blades should be checked for ice build-up before start. Any deposits should be removed with a low flow hot air source, such as a cabin heater. Inspect the aircraft for contamination after operation on slushy manoeuvring areas.

The Aircrew Manual or Release to Service for the particular helicopter may also need to state the following: (a) The accuracy of the OAT gauge and, therefore, the maximum indicated temperature at which 0°C ambient air temperature can be expected. (b) The maximum temperature at which engine icing could be expected. (c) The minimum gas generator rpm, with time limits, for effective engine anti- icing. (d) The areas where icing may be expected at temperatures above 0°C. 1 Responsibility The person technically releasing the aircraft is responsible for the performance and verification of the results of ground de- icing/anti- icing treatment.

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